Women portraying civilians and
those representing Axis and Allied forces of Western Europe
in 1944 are invited to attend the event. ETO, Home Front,
British, French, German and Partisan impressions and
displays are welcome and encouraged. All persons attending
the event should be acquainted with the general authenticity
regulations as they apply equally to all event participants.
The following are supplemental guidelines for female
reenactors attending the event. Note:the material contained on these pages is not inclusive. All
female impressions are accepted and encouraged.
Dress and grooming should be consistent with 1944 Europe and
North American standards.
a. Hair must be cut and styled consistent with the practices
of the 1940s. For women in uniform, hair should
be styled to the military standards of the impression
i. Female soldiers should wear their hair off the collar as
was required by military regulations.
ii. Modern hair color is not permitted (e.g. blue or pink)
and modern hairstyles should be
covered or altered to appear “vintage”.
b. Women’s makeup, including fingernail polish if worn)
should be consistent with 1940’s practices. As the use of
makeup differed by nationality, women portraying civilians
and military roles should ensure makeup
is used appropriately and is consistent with products
available during war-time.
i. Women in the US military were permitted to wear makeup,
including bright lip color.
ii. Women in the German military were expected to uphold the
purest female form and were
discouraged from using heavy makeup. As a result, women
portraying a German military
role should limit make up to mascara, powder, and a neutral
lip color. iii. Civilian make up should be
limited based upon impression.
Clothing styles and ensembles should be appropriate to the
wearer’s impression. This includes jewelry (watches, rings and
necklaces), and accessories such as hats, eyeglasses, shoes,
hosiery and handbags. 3.
Tattoos must be completely covered at all times while in
uniform or 1940s dress. The use of makeup on exposed tattoos is highly
encouraged. Alternatively, opaque hose and/or long sleeves
can be used to cover tattoos.
Military courtesy will be in effect in the camp.
Non-military participants should use 1940’s “manners” during public hours.
5. All tools,
drinking vessels, utensils and other common items should
date to 1944 or before.
WLA - Women's Land Army:
For work wear:
Many land girls wore jumpers or tops under their dungarees that were their own. Some were issued Aertex shirts with their dungarees, but often many weren't. Please be advised to refer to the Civilian and women's guidelines for applicable clothing to wear under dungarees.
Also, please keep in mind if your impression is a land girl in her work wear, your appearance
should be according to your job. Heavy makeup and freshly set hair would not apply here.
• Heavy duty cotton tan dungarees with or without a brown leather belt cinched at the waist
• Heavy duty tan dungaree "cutoffs" are also acceptable
• Aertex (or cotton/linen) short sleeved shirt. No modern day polos, please.
• Brown or peanut colored work boots, no lug soles.
• Black Wellingtons, or gum boots with no visible print or labels
• WLA issued fawn colored wool stockings
• WLA issued "milking coat"
• Tractor jacket
• a scarf over your hair is acceptable, keeping with the prints and fabrics of the time
The WLA winter or 'Walking Out' Uniform
Please note that if your impression is a land girl using her winter uniform for Parades or Walking Out, light makeup and freshly set hair is acceptable here.
• WLA issued tan lace up knee breeches
• WLA issued fawn colored long sleeved uniform shirt with official hunter green tie with WLA print on it in gold and burgundy pinstriping
• Brown leather belt, standard issue is 1 3/4" with gold colored buckle
• Hunter green v-neck long sleeve jumper with the WLA badge pinned in the "V" on the front
• WLA armband, indicating months/years of service
• WLA uniform hat with badge
• Fawn wool stockings are to be worn over knee breeches and turned over
• Dark brown leather oxfords with a 1 1/2 inch heel, or ankle laced work boots (similar to men's British army boots) are also acceptable.
Allied Civilian Participants:
1. Civilian clothing should be appropriate to the wearers’ age, occupation, nationality, and social strata. a. Clothing should be made of fabric available during war-time rationing. Cotton and rayon were encouraged due to Order L-85 (America) and Utility Apparel Order (United Kingdom). Nylon, rubber, silk, leather, and wool were reserved exclusively for combat and combat support purposes and were thus difficult to access for civilian garment production.
Women’s fashions from 1935-1949 to illustrate
fashion silhouettes worn
through 1944 as well as incorrect styles to avoid.
Click to enlarge.
b. The war-time clothing regulations produced a slim female silhouette with nipped in waists and narrow skirts with Vogue describing the look as “sharp, cold, and even bold”. c. According to the War Production Board, there was need for 15% less fabric used in war-time clothing styles than pre-war standards. Prohibited during war-time standards: pleats, ruffles, patch pockets, attached hoods and shawls, full sleeves or skirts. Hems could be no wider than 2 inches and garments can have no more than one pocket.
utility dresses May 14, 1942.
Dresses are designed to avoid dullness.
women’s’ utility suits.
d. Regulations, according to the War Production Board for women’s clothing, were as follows:
• Straight Coats: 44” in length, 64” sweep of hem
• Fitted Coats: 45” in length, 64” sweep of hem
• Jackets: Maximum length 28”
• Slacks or pants: Maximum length 45”, bottom width 14 ½”
i. Skirt: Length 28 ¾”-30”, Sweep according to fabric 65”-88”
ii. Jacket: Length 23 ½”- 28”
• Blouses: Sleeve width limited to 14”, Length from neck to hem 22”, Only one patch pocket
(Prohibited Styles: Dolman, balloon, and leg o’mutton)
• Culottes or Skirt: Length 28 ¾” – 30”, Sweep of hem 66”-97”
(Prohibited Styles: All around pleated skirts)
• Daytime Dresses: Maximum length 45”, Sweep of hem 74” (Prohibited Styles: Tunics)
• Evening Dresses: Maximum basic length 59”, Sweep of hem for all non-transparent fabric 144”
• Evening Jackets: Shall not exceed 25” from neck to hem, Hem limited to 1 ½”
• Evening Skirts: Length 45”, Sweep of hem 144”
women’s hats Left to right:
Canadian pink straw doll hat,
American “V” for victory rhinestone trimmed wool
turban c. 1945.
e. Accessories should reflect the time period.
• Belts are narrow and should not exceed 2” in width.
• Nude stockings (denier nylon, mercerized cotton, cotton lisle, or silk), if worn, have a matching in color, seam up the back of the leg. Socks with bare legs are acceptable- to be worn with flat shoes.
• Shoes are rounded toe and, if high heeled, would have a sturdy heel (stilettos are incorrect).
Popular shoes of the time were Penny Loafers, Wedgies, Oxfords, and Spectator Pumps.
• Gloves were most commonly worn by women who left the house to go into public.
The rule with glove selection was: the shorter the sleeve, the longer the glove.
• Hats were also generally worn in public unless the attire is a sporting outfit. Common styles of the time were: Felt fedoras, Picture hats, Peter Pan, Turbans, Fascinators, Pancake hats, and Doll hats.
women’s shoe advertisements. Note: the thick heels
and rounded toes.
f. Prior to World War 2, when a man purchased a suit, it came with a jacket, a vest, and two pairs of pants. The wartime “Victory Suit” eliminated the vest and second pair of pants. Men’s suits were single-breasted, had narrow lapels, no cuffs, and no pocket flaps. Wartime necessity allowed men to wear mismatched jackets and trousers.
are a number of generalizations that we see in 1940's French
women's fashion. Of course, fashion varied as much then as
now, and a Breton woman living on a farm would presumably
dress much differently than a Parisienne. These guidelines
are simply to set you on the right course towards having an
authentic impression; as always, it's best to supplement
these guidelines with your own research of period documents
Make do and mend - repaired and even stained garments
would fit in well. If
you’re taking part in the battles/scenarios make sure you
wear something you don’t mind getting torn or dirty.
Dresses & Skirts Polka dots,
checkered square as well as flowers with big, small and
tangled designs were common patterns for dresses.
Length is just below
or right at the knee.
Wartime dresses and skirts have less fabric due to
rationing, so no poofy skirts as they are postwar.A classic A-line skirt is the best way to go.
Cotton is material of choice since it’s cooler, but wool and
rayon and were also common.
No polyester or polyester blends.Stay away from elastic as most won't have the proper
Leather or cloth-covered belts were common on
period dresses and pants, but not essential. •
Closures (zippers, snaps or hooks and eyes) for
dresses and skirts should always be metal and on the left
side of the garment.Short neck zippers are correct. Most full back
zippers are post war.
Blouses Collared blouses were typical and often buttoned
all the way up and paired with a three-quarter length or
long-sleeved knit sweater.Shoulders were usually made to look more prominent
with shoulder pads.
High, flat-wasted, full-legged pants with side closures
(zippers, snaps or hooks and eyes) are a good option
especially if you’re fielding.
Footwear 100% Cotton or 100% wool socks and flat leather
shoes (or shoes with a minimal heel) or leather boots to
allow ease of movement.Avoid stockings as they will get torn.
Minimal to no
Hats 100% wool Basque beret is the common hat of choice
in the maquis camp, usually in black, brown or dark blue.
Hair & Make-up
Minimum make-up if any.Braids, snoods and buns are all easy options.No straight hair or ponytails.
Impressions in the Encampment: Women portraying military
impressions may wear any authentic combination of Uniforms
and Equipment as would have been seen in the European
Theater of Operations prior to or during 1944. Uniforms and
equipment must be original or quality reproductions. Please
refrain from including in your display or wearing original
or reproduction items that do not date to c.1944.
Military Impressions in the Battle Reenactments: For women planning to participate
in the battle reenactments, additional requirements apply.
These are listed in the Authenticity Regulations for the
respective nationalities. Women wishing to participate in
tactical (excepting French Resistance fighters) must adopt a
male impression for and adhere to the guidelines for that
Uniforms: Uniforms, regardless of
impression—unit, nationality, or gender—should be worn in a
regulation or documented fashion. As these are military
uniforms of the respective countries, although no longer in
use, they should be worn in a manner befitting a soldier of
the time period. Overall military appearance and proper wear
of the uniform and equipment will be required in camp. (see
Military Impressions for the Beach Landings for additional
information and requirements for those wishing to
participate in the tactical.) Though some women’s attire is
difficult to obtain, women portraying military impressions
should ensure that they wear the entire uniform as it was
intended in WWII. Alternate impressions and wearings may be
substantiated through photos and we encourage participants
to share their information with us and the public attending
the event. Female uniforms should be complete and not mix
grades of uniforms or insignia. Appropriate headwear should
be worn for the circumstances. Back to Top
We are aware that the Army Nurse
Corps had a variety of uniforms. D-Day Conneaut portrays a
specific time frame during the war. The only uniforms
authorized are from Spring to Summer 1944 in the ETO.
The following uniforms are NOT
authorized to wear by participants as they were not the norm
in the ETO, however they may be displayed as part of
a uniform grouping display:
• Service Uniform, Women’s, Blue
• Cape, Nurses, blue
• Cape, Nurses, od
• Service Uniform, Women’s, Beige
• Dress, Off Duty, Women’s Beige
• Uniform, Cotton Seersucker, Nurses
• Jacket, Cotton Seersucker, Nurses
• Pants, Cotton Seersucker, Nurses
• Service Uniform, Women’s, Tropical
• Uniform, Cotton White, Nurses
• Uniform, Cotton Blue, Nurses
Prescribed D-Day ANC Uniforms: (All members of the
ANC were Officers although uniforms may vary we will require
the norm and not the exception.)
• Shirt: Herringbone Twill, Women’s, special
• Pants: Herringbone Twill, Women’s, special
• Shoes: Service, Women’s, Oxford, russet (private
purchase pumps authorized in Service Uniform, russet brown
with bow) Pinks & Greens authorized for wear.
NOTE: If reproduction footwear is
not available, shoes should be a russet oxford with minimal
decoration and a heel of 1 and 1/2 inches.
• Dress: Off-duty, Women’s, OD*
*Note: The off duty dress is a private purchase item and not
listed as an issue item. The off duty dress is worn when not
on duty. In camp we try to strive to represent the training
forces in England and invasion forces of France, therefore
the off duty dress is not a work uniform. This uniform is
more frequently seen in England and only seen in France
after the liberation of Paris. While
this uniform is authorized please understand that it is not
representative of a uniform that would be worn in garrison
or in field work, so that when dealing with the public for
educational purposes please make sure to distinguish the
difference in the uniform.
SOURCES: QM 3-2 QUARTERMASTER SUPPLY CATALOG, LIST OF ITEMS FOR
TROOP ISSUE WACS’ AND NURSES’ CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT,
REVISED 7 OCTOBER 1943
NURSE, PHYSICAL THERAPY AIDE, HOSPITAL DIETITIAN MANDATORY
CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT ALLOWANCES FOR THEATER OF
OPERATIONS-SUMMER/WINTER CLOTHING FOR TEMPERATE ZONE, 11
* All US female
military participants must wear the appropriate
shirtwaists/ties/accessories for their uniforms. Back to Top
Prescribed Uniform for Enlisted Women:
• Winter Service Uniform: Cap, WAC, (Also known as Hobby Hat) or Wool Garrison Cap.
• Garrison Jacket: wool, women’s (also referred to as a “blouse,” not to be confused with
the “Ike” style jacket)
• Skirt: wool
• Women’s Shirt: Cotton or Wool
• Service Shoes or
• Appropriate insignia.
NOTE: If reproduction footwear is not available, shoes should be a russet oxford with
minimal decoration and a heel of 1 and 1/2 inches.
• Hat: herringbone, twill (also referred to as a Daisy Mae)
• Jacket and Trousers:
herringbone twill or Coverall Herringbone twill (Women’s HBTs preferred, but men’s
* All US female
military participants must wear the appropriate
shirtwaists/ties/accessories for their uniforms. Back to Top
WAVES: • Jacket, Skirt
(service dress – blue – or white), Trousers, Cap WAVES, ,
cotton shirtwaist blue or white
Cotton, Seersucker, Navy Dress or Jacket and Skirt - • Work Smock, Blue • Coverall, Aviation, Blue • Trousers, Navy, Denim Blue (Men’s dungaree optional) • Shirt, Chambray, Blue Cotton (Men’s optional)
* All US female
military participants must wear the appropriate
shirtwaists/ties/accessories for their uniforms.
Resources for US
Impressions: Resources we would recommend to
those just becoming acquainted with their military
impression of choice include Dressed for Duty and
Quartermaster Study Guide, A Wardrobe for the Women of the
Army written in 1945. We would also recommend Women for
Victory: American Servicewomen in World War II Back to Top
Deutsches Rotes Kreuz Uniforms: • Medium grey
pleated front blouse with contrasting white collar. White
blouses worn with this skirt in walking out dress.
• Skirt in the matching grey with
two front pleats and concealed pockets. • DRK triangular cloth patch worn on right sleeve
plain white Red Cross armband on the left • Uniform jacket - double breasted grey of the same color
with two rows of buttons, & a dark grey contrasting collar and
outwards-buttoning sleeve tabs. Red Cross collar patches are worn on the collar.
• Field dress will consist of the blue-grey and white striped
ward dress with matching white apron (normally of bib-type)
• The starched white nurse’s cap
will be worn with the ward dress. The Red Cross armband will
be worn on the left upper arm and the standard DRK
triangular sleeve patch will also be worn • Shoes will be black lace tie up leather uppers consistent
with 1940’s Germany worn with white socks *NOTE: This uniform has been limited due to the
differences between the National Socialist DRK and the
Regular DRK. We do not allow ANY political uniforms of any
type. Back to Top
Deutscher Mädel and Jungmädel: 1. White poplin, worsted wool, or cotton blouse with long
sleeves or short sleeves (depending on season) and either
two open-topped breast pockets or one open-topped pocket (on
the left) and one flap-topped pocket on the right. In the
case of the two open-topped breast pockets, there should be
a two-button closure on each pocket. In the case of the dual
pocketed shirt, there should be a two-button closure on the
open-topped pocket and a single button closure on the
flap-topped pocket. The buttons should be flat, white, and
four holed. 4 Larger buttons down the center front of the
shirt, similar but smaller buttons on the pockets and cuffs.
The long sleeved version of the blouse is to be worn
underneath the jacket. The short sleeved version of this
blouse isn’t worn with the jacket, but is acceptable to wear
for summer events. Jungmädel uniforms may also have 2
buttons at the waistline of the shirt which button into the
waistline of the skirt.
• The skirt is
made of dark blue wool with waist belt loops and a single
central pleat in center front from hem to mid thigh. Left side closure. A
plain black belt with a silver buckle is worn through
loops. The skirt has two internal front
pockets with slanted buttoning external flaps. Length of
skirt can be anywhere from knee length to
mid-calf. • The uniform jacket consisted of a faux velour/ faux suede.
Original jacket colors varied from light tan to caramel brown. The jacket is waist
length – it is shorter in the back and comes to two points
at the hips in the front. It is single
breasted with six buttons closures. Four patch pockets with
a single button closure on each, are on the
front. The back of jacket has two half belts at the hip for
fit. The black triangular district patch of
the BDM member’s home district is worn on the upper left
sleeve. Below this is the red/white diamond
shape Hitler Youth insignia.
• A black scarf is worn around the neck with a leather
slipknot. • No jewelry should be worn, including earrings, rings,
necklaces, bracelets. Watches are permitted. • No makeup should be worn.
• Shoes are flat soled oxfords in black or brown. Shoes may
have heel and toe plates. • White cotton socks are the only acceptable color for summer
breasted grey wool jacket with matching pleated skirt • Grey wool side cap • Grey button-up blouse with collar and buttoned cuffs (no
pockets) • Black tie • National emblem in white on black background for jacket,
blouse, and cap
• “NH des
Heeres” cufftitle • Signals blitz pin on tie • Signals patches on jacket and cap
breasted blue-grey wool jacket with matching pleated skirt
• Hip length
blue-grey wool jacket (similar to male fliegerbluse) with
matching ski trousers • Blue-grey wool side cap if wearing the single breasted
jacket • Blue-grey M43 style field cap with single button if wearing
the hip length jacket • Light blue button up blouse with collar and buttoned cuffs
(no pockets) • Black tie • Luftwaffe style eagle in silver-grey thread on blue-grey
background for jacket and cap (optional on blouse) • The appropriate insignia (cufftitles, patches, etc) and
pins worn according to the impression.
and Hilfsausbilderinnen (unskilled trainers) of the
Reichsschule-SS: Single breasted feldgrau
jacket with three button fastening with two rectangular
skirt pockets and a single open left breast pocket. The
upper collar must be unlined (unless portraying and officer
impression, please check with Axis Command for this event).
The jacket bears the oval black cloth patch with silver
edging bearing the SS runes. The SS version of the National
Emblem is worn on the upper left sleeve 16 cm from where the
sleeve comes off the shoulder. Cuff title bearing the
Reichsschule-SS (only in a training role) all others must
bear the SS-Helferin to be worn 14 cm above the edge of the
*NOTE: In September 1943 Heinrich Himmler, the
Reichsführer-SS, gave the order that the SS-Helferinnen
are not allowed to wear the national emblem (Reichsadler)
on the blouse (but were allowed on the jacket, the coat
and the cap) and not allowed to wear the sign of
lightning anywhere on the uniform (Signallers Badge) [Tagesbefehl
144/43, 6.9.1943, Bundesarchiv Berlin, NS 32 II/56, Bl.
SOURCE: Das SS-Helferinnenkorps Ausbildung, Einsatz und
Entnazifizierung der weiblichen Angehorigen der Waffen-SS
1942-1949: by Jutta Muhlenberg
NO SIGNALS BADGE IS TO BE WORN ON THIS UNIFORM AS THIS IS A
1944 EVENT AND IT IS HISTORICALLY INACCURATE TO WEAR THIS ON
THE UNIFORM. *NOTE:In
September 1943 Heinrich Himmler, the Reichsführer-SS, gave
the order that the SS-Helferinnen are not allowed to wear
the national emblem (Reichsadler) on the blouse (but were
allowed on the jacket, the coat and the cap) and not allowed
to wear the sign of lightning anywhere on the uniform (Signallers
Badge) [Tagesbefehl 144/43, 6.9.1943, Bundesarchiv Berlin, NS 32 II/56, Bl. 149].